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Difference between wrongful Wrongful re­straint (IPC Sec.339) and Wrongful confinement (IPC Sec. 340)


Difference between wrongful confinement (IPC Sec. 340) and wrongful re­straint (IPC Sec.339)

As regards difference between the two, wrongful confine­ments, in the first place, is a form of wrongful restraint. It is keeping a man-within limits out of which he wishes to go and has a right to go while wrongful restraint is keeping a man out of a place where he wishes to go, and has a right to be.
In the second place, in wrongful confinement a person is restrained from moving beyond a certain area within which he is confined, but in wrongful restraint he is free to move anywhere other than to proceed in a particular direction.
In other words, there is full restraint in the former, but only partial in the latter. And lastly, wrongful confinement is a more serious offence inasmuch as it prescribes punishment with imprisonment, simple, or rigorous, extending to one year, or fine up to Rs. 1,000, or both, while wrongful restraint is

I.P.C. Section 340 Wrongful confinement


Section 340 in The Indian Penal Code, 1860
 
Section 340: Wrongful confinement.-- Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said" wrongfully to confine" that person.
 
Illustration:
1. A causes Z to go within a walled space, and locks Z. Z is thus prevented from proceeding in any direction beyond the circumscribing line of wall. A wrongfully confines z.
 
2.A places men with firearms at the outlets of a building, and tells Z that they will fire at Z if Z attempts leave the building. A wrongfully confines Z. 
 

Wrongful Restraint (Section 339 of IPC)

Legal provisions regarding Wrongful Restraint under section 339 of Indian Penal Code, 1860.

Wrongful Restraint:
According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction, in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person.
Exception:
The obstruction of a private way over land or water which a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct, is not an offence within the meaning of this Section.
Illustration:
A obstructs a path along which Z has a right to pass, A not believing in good faith that he has a right to stop the path. Z is thereby prevented from passing. A wrongfully restrains Z.
Ingredients of Wrongful Restraint:
The essential ingredients of ‘Wrongful Restraint’ are:

Intercountry Adoption

What is Intercountry Adoption?

Intercountry adoption is the process by which you:
1.            Adopt a child from a country other than your own through permanent legal means; and
2.            Bring that child to your country of residence to live with you permanently.
Intercountry adoption is similar to domestic adoption.  Both consist of the legal transfer of parental rights and responsibilities from a child’s birth parent(s) or other guardian to a new parent or parents.
Intercountry adoptions are different from domestic adoptions because of the laws that make it possible to bring the child to live where you live.  Generally speaking, to qualify as an adoption for immigration purposes into the United States, the adopted child must have the same status and relationship to the adoptive parents as a child by birth. What some countries call “adoptions” are

Section 141 in The Indian Penal Code, 1860

          Sec:141 (Unlawful assembly) An assembly of five or more persons is designated an" unlawful assembly", if the common object of the persons composing that assembly is- First.- To overawe by criminal force, or show of criminal force, 10[ the Central or any State Government or Parliament or the Legislature of any State], or any public servant in the exercise of the lawful power of such public servant; or Second.- To resist the execution of any law, or of any legal process; or Third.- To commit any mischief or criminal trespass, or other offense; or Fourth.- By means of criminal force, or show of criminal force, to any person to take or obtain possession of any property, or to deprive any person of the enjoyment of a right of way, or of the use of water or other incorporeal right of which he is in possession or enjoyment, or to enforce any right or supposed right; or Fifth.- By means of criminal force, or show of criminal force, to compel any person to do what he is not legally bound to do, or to omit to do what he is legally entitled to do. Explanation.- An assembly which was not unlawful when it assembled, may subsequently become an unlawful assembly. 

Difference Between Section 34 and 109 in I.P.C


 Difference Between Section 34 and 109 in I.P.C
Both Offences talk about crime by group of people. Such that if a crime is done by 2 or more people but less than 5 then section 149 is not applicable whereas section 34 is applicable on those offences.
A clear distinction is made out between common intention and common object is that common intention denotes action in concert and necessarily postulates the existence of a pre-arranged plan implying a prior meeting of the minds, while common object does not necessarily require proof of prior meeting of minds or pre-concert. Though there is a substantial difference between the two sections namely 34 and 149, they also to some extent overlap and it is a question to be determined

Section 34 in The Indian Penal Code, 1860

                                       Section 34 in The Indian Penal Code, 1860     
34. Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention.- When a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.
Ingredients
(i) When an offence is sought to be proved only on circumstan­tial evidence, the allegations of common intention under section 34 normally cannot be established in absence of meeting of mind, the overt act of the accused, by their conduct, by using the weapons by their utterance of words; Santosh Desai v. State of Goa, (1997) 2 Crimes 666 (Bom).
(ii) In order to bring a case under section 34 it is not neces­sary that there must be a prior conspiracy or pre-meditation, the common

Schools of Hindu LAW

Definition

Hindu means those people who are being following the rules of hindu religion indentify himself to others people as hindu is called hindu.
hindu law: Hindu laws means those statutes rules which prescribed the right and duties of hindu. It’s called hindu law.
SCHOOLS OF HINDU LAW
School means rules and principles of Hindu Law which are divided into opinion. It is not codified. There are two Schools of Hindu Law-
(a) Mitakshara
(b) Dayabhaga
The schools are ordinarily said to be five in number. But there are only two principal schools namely, the mitakshara school and the Dayabhaga school. The Dayabhaga prevails in Bangladesh and in the province of West Bengal in india the Mitakshara prevails in the whole of India (except the province of west Bengal) and in Pakistan.
The Mitakshara is anterior to Dayabhaga and is a running commentary on the Code of Yajnabalkya written by Vijnaneswara.
The Dayabhaga is not a commentary on any particular Code but a digest of all the Codes. It gives first preference to the Code of Manu.
The Mitakshara school is regarded as the orthodox school and the Dayabhaga the reformed one and the two mainly differ on the following matters:-
i)                   The law of inheritance.
ii)                Joint family system.
The Mitakshara is sub-divided into four or five minor schools. These differ between themselves in some matters of detail relating mainly to adoption and inheritance.
  
The schools along with the commentaries, respected as authorities are given below:-

1. Mitakshara School :
(a) Benares School :      
(i) Mitakshara
                                                (ii) Viramitrodaya

Salient Features of the Constitution of India

The main features of Indian Constitution are the following:
(i) A written and lengthy constitution:
The Constitution of India is a written constitution. It was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was established for the purpose in 1946. It has 395 Articles and 12 Schedules. A number of amendments, (about 96) passed since its enforcement in 1950, have also become a part of the Constitution.
The Constitution of India is the lengthiest constitution in the world as no other constitution contains as many articles. The constitution of USA has 7 Articles, of China 138, Japanese 103, and Canadian 107 Articles.
(ii) Sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic:
The Constitution declares India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. The words, ‘Socialist’ and ‘secular’ were added in the Preamble of the Constitution by 42nd amendment which was passed in 1976.
Sovereign means absolutely independent; it is not under the control of any other state. Before 1947, India was not sovereign as it was under the Britishers. Now it can frame its policy without any outside interference.
Socialist:
Word ‘Socialist’ was added in the Preamble by 42nd Amendment of the Constitution which was passed in 1976. This implies a system which will endeavour to avoid concentration of wealth in a few hands and will assure its equitable distribution.
It also implies that India is against exploitation in all forms and believes in economic justice to all its citizens.
Secular:

Difference between Culpable Homicide (IPC Sec.299) and Murder (IPC Sec.300)


Section 299 defines Culpable Homicide.
Whoever causes death by doing an act with,

  1. Intention of causing death.
  2. Intentionally causing bodily injury which is likely to cause death.
  3. Doing act with knowledge that it is likely to cause death.
Section 300 defines Murder.
Whoever causes death by doing an act with.
  1. Intention  of causing death.
  2.  Causing such bodily injury as the offender knows it is likely to cause death of person.
  3. Intentionally causing bodily injury which is sufficient to cause death.
  4. Doing act with knowledge that it is  so imminently dangerous and in all probability causes death.
The question is when death of man is to be treated as culpable homicide or murder. there is thin difference between the murder and culpable homicide.why this difference is important because the culpable homicide carries maximum punishment of life imprisonment and  where as murder carries death sustenance. 2 and 3 Ingrident of 299 and 3 and 4 of 300 difference is on apparent. read the marked words the difference would be noticed. if the death of the person is more than survival then it is murder. On the other hand death is likely, means survival and death are in the same proportionate, then it is culpable homicide. it depends upon what kind of weapon offender has used and where the injuries are caused.suppose the offender has

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08/09/2014 LL.B (S.V.University) Exam Timetable for the year of 2014 (CLICK HERE)





03/04/2014
ANANTHA COLLEGE NEWS: HALL TICKETS FOR 3YEARS AND 5YEARS LL.B SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS WILL BE ISSUED 4th APRIL ONWARDS STUDENTS CAN COLLECT THEIR HALL-TICKET AT COLLEGE ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCK.

20/03/2014 FINALLY S.V.UNIVERSITY EXAM DATES ARE ANNOUNCED.

15/03/2014

ANANTHA COLLEGE, TIRUPATI NEWS: DEAR FRIENDS ANANTHA COLLEGE'S FINAL YEAR STUDENT'S
FAREWEL CELEBRATION AND COLLEGE DAY CELEBRATION WILL BE 
HELD ON 19TH MARCH, 2014 AT 10:00 A.M. IN COLLEGE PREMISES. 
YOU ALL ARE INVITED AND SHOULD COME WITHOUT FAIL
 -(BY) PRINCIPAL, ANANTHA COLLEGE, TIRUPATI.
05/03/2014 
06/02/2014
This is to inform all students to Collect Practical Training records Compulsorily by paying Rs.600/-
Before 14-2-2014. ANANTHA COLLECGE OF LAW TIRUPATI. The records package for LL.B 3
years students contains 3 records for the year of 1st ,2nd ,3rd
-
Regional Seminar on SOCIO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF LIVE-IN RELATIONSHIP IN INDIA on
25th January, 2014 at ANANTHA COLLEGE OF LAW, #12, Kesavayanagunta, Tirupati-517501.
for brochure (Click here) 
13/12/2013 Legal Seminar on 28-12-2013 at Anantha College of Law, Tirupati at 10:00 a.m all students should
attend the seminar
11/12/2013 Seminar on Human Rights Commission at Anantha College of Law, Tirupati at 11:30 p.m
 celebrated on 10-12-2013 on the view of International Day of Human Rights
6/11/2013 During Telangana separation process YSR Congress Party Declared two days seemandhra
 BUNDH. Most of the Institutions, shops, Road Transport Corporation of A.P. and educational
 institutions are Announced closed from 6-12-2013 to 8-12-2013

Books for 3Years L.L.B Law (S.V.UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS)


 SEMISTER 1
PAPER-1.1 CONTRACTS-I (General Principles of Law of Contract)
SUGGESTED READINGS:   
1 : Indian Contract Act,1872 and Specific Relief Act, 1963 and their commentaries.
2 : Guest-Anson. A.G. Law of Contract (24th Edn 1974)
3 : Avtar Singh. Dr -Law of Contract.
4 : Cheshire. G.C & Fifoor. H.S -The Law of Contract. (2 Edn. 1976).
5 : Chitty- Chitty on contracts- General Principles Vol-I (22 Edn. 1977).
6 : Kapur. J.L )Ed) Pollock and Mulla on the Indian Contract and Specific Relief
Acts (9 Edn. 1972).
7 : Dalal J.H (Ed) Mulla on the Indian Contract Act (10 Edn. 1977).
8 : Krishnan Nair. M. Law of Contracts (3rd Edn. 1973)
9 : Sen. G.M – Case Book on the Law of Contract (1970).
10 : Treitel. G.H – Law of Contract (1962).
11 : Venkatraman. S and Ramamurthy K. – Venkatesa Iyer. T.S Law of Contract (4th
Edn, 1983).
12 : Singhal. J.P and Subrahmanyam-Indian contract Act (Vol=I),
13 : Relevant volumes of the Annual Survey published by the Indian law Institute.
OTHER Links & BOOKS:
1. Indian Contract Act,1872 and Specific Relief Act, 1963 and their commentarie

2. SOURCEBOOK ON CONTRACT LAW
PAPER-1.2 CONSTITUTIONAL LAW-I
SUGGESTED READINGS:   
1 : Basu.D.D -Commentary on the Constitution of India.
2 : Hidayatullah.M (Ed) -Constitutional Law of India
3 : Seervai.H.M -Constitution of India.
4 : Austin.G –Indian Constitution A cornerstone of a Nation.
5 : Banerjee.A.C –Constitutional History of India.
6 : Khanna.H.R –Making of India’s Constitution
7 : Shiva Rao.B –Framing of India’s Constitution.
8 : Jain.M.P –Indian Constitutional Law.
9 : Relevant volumes of the Annual survey published by Indian Institute.

CONTRACT

VIDEO LECTURE
Essential Elements of a Contract: Indian Contract Act 1872

Student's College Allotment Details

Students should bring their college allotment details along with all specific documents and proofs while joining. they can download their allotment details below:-

Fee Details of 3 Year LLB (2013)